Tuesday, 25 January 2022

জয়পুৰ ভ্ৰমণ

 জাহ্নৱী ভূঞা; যোগাযোগ আৰু সাংবাদিকতা বিভাগ, গুৱাহাটী বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়। 


ভ্ৰমণ শব্দটো প্ৰতিজন মানুহৰ বাবে এটা শিহৰণ।জীৱন জীয়াবলৈ মানুহক কিছু আয়োজনৰ দৰকাৰ। ঠিক ভ্ৰমণো যেন জীয়াই থকাৰ আয়োজন। পিঠিত এটা বেগ, এযোৰ সাধাৰণ পোছাক, সদায় নতুনৰ সন্ধানী মন মগজুত লৈ এক ৰঙীন যাত্রা। 

ঠিক এনে এক যাত্রাৰ পৰম প্ৰাপ্তি হৈছিল মোৰ সদ্য বিদায়ী বছৰটোৰ শেষৰ মাহত।অসমৰপৰা ট্ৰেইনেৰে প্ৰায় ৪০ ঘন্টীয়া যাত্ৰাৰ অন্তত মই উপস্থিত হৈছিলো ভাৰতৰ পিংকী চিটী জয়পুৰত।

ৰাতি ১০:৩০ বজাত জয়পুৰত ভৰি ৰাখিছিলো ।৫°ছেলচিয়াচ হাড় কপোৱা ঠাণ্ডায়ো যেন মোৰ শিহৰণক টলাব পৰা নাছিল। শীতাৰ্ত ৰাতিৰ বুকুত উম লৈ শুই থকা চহৰখনৰ যেন শান্তি ভংগ কৰি "ধীৰে চলনা হে মুচকিল তু জল্দী হী চহী" গীতটো চিঞৰি চিঞৰি গাবলৈ মন গৈছিল। সূর্য উঠালৈ যেন এক অন্তহীন অপেক্ষা! 

সূৰ্য উঠিল; মইয়ো ওলালো ঢল পুৱাতে উপস্থিত হলোগৈ জয়পুৰৰ ঐতিহাসিক চেন্ট্ৰেল মিউজিয়াম যিটো 'এলবাৰ্ট হল' নামেৰে বিখ্যাত। কিন্তু ইয়াৰ ভিতৰত সোমোৱা নহ'ল। তাৰ পিছত ৰাওনা হৈছিলো ১৭৩৪ চনত নিৰ্মিত জয়পুৰৰ যন্ত্র-মন্ত্ৰলৈ। য'ত সংগৃহীত হৈ আছে ৰাজপুত ৰজা শ্বৱাই জয় সিংৰ ৰাজত্বকালত নিৰ্মিত বহুতো জ্যোতিবিদ্যা সম্পৰ্কীয় সা-সৰঞ্জাম।যিয়ে মোৰ চকু থৰ লগাই পেলাইছিল।পিছত চিধাই ঢাপলি মেলিলো UNESCO দ্বাৰা স্বীকৃত বিশ্ব ঐতিহ্য ক্ষেত্র 'চিটি পেলেচ' আৰু 'হাৱা মেহেললৈ' য'ত মোক সুক্ষ্ম কাৰুকাৰ্যই হতবাক কৰি তুলিছিল। 


আবেলিৰ হেঙুলীয়া বেলিৰ পোহৰত 'জল মেহেল' চোৱাৰ লগতে অস্তগামী সূৰ্য চালো।

এদিনীয়া জয়পুৰ ভ্ৰমণসূচীৰ আটাইতকৈ ৰোমাঞ্চিত সময়খিনি আছিল 'অম্বৰ ফৰ্ট' দৰ্শন কৰিবলৈ যোৱাটো।'অম্বৰ ফৰ্ট'লৈ যাওঁতে মই এজন গাইড'ৰ সহায় লৈছিলো আৰু 'অম্বৰ ফৰ্ট'ৰ' চুক-কোণক লৈ ইমান সুন্দৰভাৱে ইতিহাসৰ বৰ্ণনা দিছিল যে মোহাচ্ছন্ন হৈ শুনাৰ বাহিৰে মোৰ অন্য উপায় নাছিল।মই 'অম্বৰ ফৰ্টৰপৰা ওভতি আহোতেই প্ৰায় ৰাতিয়েই হৈছিল।

সেই ৰাতিটো আছিল জোনাকৰে ভৰা। আন্ধাৰ হোৱাৰ লগে লগে ওখ ওখ মহলৰ মুধচৰে জোনটো ওলাই আহিছিল আৰু সেই স্নিগ্ধ পোহৰ ইতিহাসৰ জীয়া মাটিত সৰি পৰিছিল।



 নিজকে ইতিহাসৰ কোনো এটা জীৱন্ত চৰিত্ৰ যেন শিহৰণ এটা জাগিছিল,সেয়া যেন এক স্বৰ্গীয় অনুভূতিহে আছিল। 

   

ক'ভিডকালীন পৰিস্থিতিত সাম্প্ৰতিক শিক্ষা ব্যৱস্থাৰ ওপৰত পৰা প্ৰভাৱ: প্ৰত্যাহ্বান আৰু প্ৰত্যাশা

 প্ৰীতিষা শৰ্মা যোগাযোগ আৰু সাংবাদিকতা বিভাগ ,গুৱাহাটী বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়


      সমগ্ৰ বিশ্বতে সন্ত্ৰাসৰ সৃষ্টি কৰা মহামাৰী ক'ৰ'না(ক'ভিড ১৯) ই পৃথিৱীখনক এক ধ্বংসযজ্ঞলৈ ঠেলি দিছে। এই মহামাৰীয়ে মানৱ সভ্যতাক এক নতুন পাঠ শিকাইছে যে মানুহে প্ৰকৃতিক নুই কৰিব নোৱাৰে। সম্ভ্ৰান্ত ঘৰৰ পৰা আদি কৰি নিম্ন মধ্যবিত্ত শ্ৰেণী সকলোৱে বিভিন্ন সমস্যাৰ সন্মুখীন হৈছে। এই সমস্যাসমূহৰ ভিতৰত এটা গুৰুত্বপূৰ্ণ খণ্ডত বিশেষভাৱে প্ৰভাৱ পেলাইছে। সেয়া হৈছে অসমৰ সাম্প্ৰতিক শিক্ষা ব্যৱস্থা। অলপতে, এটা সমীক্ষাৰ মতে, গোটেই বিশ্বত ১.৭২৫ বিলিয়ন ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰী প্ৰবাৱাণ্বিত হৈছে। UNICEF ৰ এটা সমীক্ষাত ১৫৩খন দেশৰ বিদ্যালয় মহাবিদ্যালয়সমূহ লকডাউনৰ বাবে বন্ধ হৈ আছে। ইয়াৰ ফলত ছাত্ৰ-ছাত্ৰীসকল বিভিন্ন সমস্যাৰ সন্মুখীন হৈছে।


    বৰ্তমান পৰিস্থিতিত ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰীসকলক অনলাইন পাঠদানৰ লগতে অনলাইন পৰীক্ষাৰো ব্যৱস্থা কৰিছে। অসম চৰকাৰেও অনলাইন পাঠদানৰ বাবে বিভিন্ন কাৰ্য্যসূচী হাতত লৈছে। যেনে: জ্ঞানবৃক্ষ টেলিভিছন চেনেল, ইউটিউব চেনেল ইত্যাদি। চৰকাৰে সাধ্যানুযায়ী কৰা চেষ্টা সঁচাকৈয়ে প্ৰশংসনীয়। কিন্তু এই কাৰ্য্যসূচী সমূহ কিমান দূৰ ফলপ্ৰসূ হৈছে সেয়াহে চিন্তনীয় বিষয়। উচ্চ শ্ৰেণীৰ কথাটো বাদেই নিম্ন শ্ৰেণীৰ (৭-৮ বছৰীয়া) ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰীৰ মাজতো ম'বাইল বা লেপটপ অনিবাৰ্য অংগ হৈ পৰিছে।
 দ্বিতীয়তে, বৰ্তমান এনে কিছুমান ঠাই আছে যত বিদ্যুৎ ব্যৱস্থা ভালদৰে নাপায়, এনেকুৱা কিছুমান পৰিয়াল আছে যাৰ ঘৰত মবাইল টি.ভি ৰ কথা বাদেই পেটে ভাতে এমুঠি খাবলৈও চিন্তা কৰিবলগীয়া।গতিকে এনেকুৱা ক্ষেত্ৰত সকলো ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰীৰ বাবে অনলাইন পাঠদান গ্ৰহণযোগ্য হৈছেনে! এয়া ভাবিবলগীয়া। 
তৃতীয়তে, ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰীসকলে শ্ৰেণীকোঠাত বহি যিদৰে মুখামুখিভাৱে শিক্ষা লয় তাৰ সলনি ম'বাইল বা লেপটপত এই পাঠদান কিমান নিৰ্ভৰযোগ্য? অলপতে National Institute of Technology, কুৰুক্ষেত্ৰ ERP, samarth নামেৰে এটা অনলাইন মাধ্যম আৰম্ভ কৰা হৈছে বিশেষকৈ শিক্ষানুষ্ঠানসমূহৰ বাবে। কিন্তু এই ব্যৱস্থাসমূহে পৃথিৱীৰ চুক-কোণৰ সকলো ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰীকে সমানভাৱে আঁকোৱালী লব পাৰিব জানো? 
    চতুৰ্থতে, ক'ৰ'না মহামাৰীৰ বাবে বিভিন্ন ঠাইত আৱদ্ধ হৈ থকা কৰ্মসংস্থাপন হেৰুওৱা শ্ৰমিকসমূহ সপৰিয়ালে নিজৰ নিজৰ ঠাইলৈ প্ৰব্ৰজিত হৈ অহাৰ ঘটনাই ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰীসকলক শংকিত কৰি তুলিছে। কাৰণ এই শ্ৰমিকসকলৰ ল'ৰা-ছোৱালী আগতে যিখন স্কুলত পঢ়ি আছিল সেই বিদ্যালয়সমূহত হয়তো আৰু কেতিয়া উভতিব পাৰিব তাৰ কোনো নিশ্চয়তা নাই। লগতে প্ৰব্ৰজিত শ্ৰমিকসকলেও কৰ্মসংস্থান হেৰুৱাই নিজৰ ঠাইতে স্বাৱলম্বী হোৱাৰ কথা চিন্তা চৰ্চা কৰি আছে। ইয়াৰ ফলত ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰীসকলে নতুন পৰিৱেশ, নতুন বিদ্যালয় আৰু নতুন শিক্ষা ব্যৱস্থাত খাপ খাবলৈ যথেষ্ট সময় লাগিব। নতুন পৰিৱেশ আৰু আৰ্থিক অভাৱে ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰীসকলৰ মানসিক স্বাস্থ্য কিছু পৰিমানে ক্ষতি কৰিব।
     অনলাইন মাধ্যমেৰে দিয়া পাঠদানত ব্যৱহাৰিক শিক্ষাদান কেতিয়াও সম্ভৱ নহয়, যাৰ ফলত ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰী হাতে কামে কৰা যিবোৰ ব্যৱহাৰিক জ্ঞান সেয়া স্থবিৰ হৈ পৰিছে। বৰ্তমান সময়ত হৈ থকা এই পৰিস্থিতিৰ বাবে যিহেতু শিক্ষানুষ্ঠানসমূহ বন্ধ হৈ আছে ইয়াৰ ফলত ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰী আৰু শিক্ষাগুৰুৰ সম্পৰ্ক আগৰ দৰেই অটুত আছেনে? এয়াও এক ভাবিবলগীয়া! কাৰণ যেতিয়া শ্ৰেণীকোঠাত পাঠদান কৰা হয়, তেতিয়া শিক্ষকে বুজি পাই যে কোনটো ল'ৰা চোকা বা অতি সহজতে কম সময়তে বিষয়বস্তু আয়ত্ব কৰি লব পাৰে আৰু কোনজন ছাত্ৰ বা ছাত্ৰী দুৰ্বল ইত্যাদি। ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰীসকলেও শিক্ষাগুৰুৰ প্ৰেৰণা আৰু উপদেশেৰে উদ্বুদ্ধ হৈ পঢ়াৰ প্ৰতি ধাউতি প্ৰকাশ কৰে। কিন্তু বৰ্তমান লকডাউনে ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰী আৰু শিক্ষকৰ মাজত দূৰত্ব বঢ়াই নানান সমস্যাৰ সৃষ্টি কৰিছে। 
       আজিৰ ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰীসকলেই হৈছে কাইলৈৰ ভৱিষ্যত। বহুতো ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰীৰ মনত নানা সপোন লুকাই থাকে। কাৰোবাৰ চিকিৎসক হোৱাৰ সপোন, কাৰোবাৰ অভিযন্তা, বিজ্ঞানী, উকীল হোৱাৰ সপোন। আন কাৰোবাৰ হয়তো বিদেশত পঢ়ি স্বদেশত নাম উজলোৱাৰ সপোন। এই সপোনবোৰক হাতেৰে চুই চাবলৈ ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰীসকলে অৱতীৰ্ণ হবলগীয়া হয় বিভিন্ন বাছনি পৰীক্ষাত। কিন্তু বৰ্তমান সময়ত হৈ থকা কৰনা মহামাৰীৰ বাবে বাছনি পৰীক্ষাসমূহ পিছুৱাই পিছুৱাই ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰীসকলৰ সপোনবোৰত গৰা খহনীয়াৰ সৃষ্টি কৰিছে।এতিয়া বহুতো ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰীয়ে নিজৰ ভৱিষ্যতক লৈ দোমোজাত পৰিছে।কি কৰো কি নকৰো উপায়বিহীন হৈ বহুতো ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰীয়ে নিজৰ উচ্চাকাংক্ষাবোৰক ওভতনি পথলৈ ঠেলি দিছে।
    কিন্তু ইয়াৰ মাজতে বৰ্তমান ক'ভিডকালীন পৰিস্থিতিত অসমৰ শিক্ষাখণ্ডত পৰা কিছুমান ধনাত্মক প্ৰভাৱো মন কৰিবলগীয়া। প্ৰথমতে, ৰ্বতমান সময়ত ছাত্ৰ ছাত্ৰীসকলে ঘৰত পঢ়িবলৈ যথেষ্ট সময় পাইছে। যিহেতু অনলাইন পাঠদান হয় গতিকে স্কুল কলেজ নোযোৱাকৈ ঘৰতে বাহিৰা কিছুমান কিতাপ পঢ়িবলৈ সুযোগ পাইছে।দ্বিতীয়তে, লকডাউনে প্ৰকৃতিক এক নতুন ৰূপ প্ৰদান কৰিছে।প্ৰকৃতিৰ কোলাত ভাগৰুৱা হৈ শুই পৰা নিদাৰুণ মানৱৰ কাৰ্যকলাপৰ বাবে দিক বিদিক হেৰুওৱা চৰাই-চিৰিকটি, গছ-লতা, তৰু-তৃণ আদি সজীৱ হৈ উঠিছে। এতিয়া যদি আমি চাৰিওফালে লক্ষ্য কৰো দেখিবলৈ পাওঁ কেৱল সেউজীয়া আৰু সেউজীয়া; শুনিবলৈ পাও চৰাই চিৰিকটিৰ কল্লোল। কল-কাৰখানা, উদ্যোগ, যান-বাহনৰ পৰা হোৱা প্ৰদূষণ কমি যোৱাৰ বাবে প্ৰকৃতিয়ে যেন এক পুনৰ্জীৱন লাভ কৰিছে। প্ৰদূষণমুক্ত পৰিৱেশেহে ল'ৰা-ছোৱালীৰ মন আৰু স্বাস্থ্য ভালে ৰাখে।NASA ৰ এগৰাকী বিজ্ঞানী পৱন গুপ্তাৰ মতে, " Pollution levels are going down and will continue to be lower as a result of lockdown. " গতিকে, এয়া সঁচাকৈয়ে মানৱ জাতি নাইবা গোটেই পৃথিৱীৰ বাবে সুখবৰ। 
তৃতীয়তে, বৰ্তমান যান্ত্ৰিক যুগত প্ৰত্যেকজন মানুহেই যন্ত্ৰৰ দৰে হৈ পৰিছিল, নিজৰ বাবে অকণমান সময় উলিয়াবলৈ আহৰি নাই। মাথো টকা-পইছাৰ যঁজখনত মানুহে ৰণুৱা ঘোঁড়াৰ দৰে চেঁকুৰি চেঁকুৰি ভাগৰুৱা হৈ পৰে। শেষত কেতিয়াবা নিজৰ স্মৃতি, নিজৰ ভালপোৱা সকলোবোৰ হেৰুৱাই পেলায়। কিন্তু সাম্প্ৰতিক পৰিস্থিতিত চলি থকা লকডাউনে আমাক আন এক পাঠ দিছে। সকলোৱে নিজৰ স্মৃতি, ভালপোৱা, নিজৰ যোগ্যতা প্ৰতিভা আদিক চিনাকী কৰাই দিছে। বৰ্তমান ফেচবুক, ইউ টিউবৰ জৰিয়তে নিজৰ নিজৰ প্ৰতিভা ইজনে আনজনৰ সৈতে বিনিময় কৰিব পাৰিছে। নিজৰ সন্তানৰ পঢ়া শুনা চাবলৈ সময় পাইছে। পৰিয়ালৰ সৈতে সময় অতিবাহিত কৰি যান্ত্ৰিক মনটোক অলপ হ'লেও জিৰণি দিছে। সকলোৱে এবাৰ হ'লেও নিজক উপলব্ধি কৰিছে।
তৃতীয়তে, জ্ঞান আৰু শিক্ষা দুটা বেলেগ বেলেগ পদ্ধতি।দুয়োটাকে আমি এটা মূদ্ৰাৰ ইপিঠি-সিপিঠি বুলি কব পাৰো। আজিৰ যুগত প্ৰায় সকলো ল'ৰা-ছোৱালীৰে শিক্ষা আছে অৰ্থাৎ পৰীক্ষাত ভাল নম্বৰ পায় নাইবা পাঠ্যপুথিখন ভালদৰেই মনত থাকে, কিন্তু জ্ঞানৰ অভাৱ বাৰুকৈয়ে লক্ষ্যণীয়।হয়তো অভিভাৱক অভিভাবিকাৰ কৰ্ম ব্যস্ততাই ইয়াৰ প্ৰধান কাৰণ। লকডাউনে ল'ৰা-ছোৱালীৰ মনত এই আধৰুৱা জ্ঞানখিনিৰ অভাৱ পূৰণ কৰাত যথেষ্টখিনি সহায় কৰিছে।
পঞ্চমতে, আজিৰ ম'বাইল, লেপটপ আদিৰ যুগতো এনেকুৱা কিছুমান ল'ৰা-ছোৱালী আছে যিসকলে আধুনিক পদ্ধতি কিছুমান আয়ত্ব কৰিব পৰা নাই, যাৰফলত কিছুমান অনলাইন পৰীক্ষা, অনলাইন প্ৰতিযোগিতা আদিৰ পৰা তেওঁলোক বঞ্চিত বা বিৰত থাকে। কিন্তু বৰ্তমান ক'ভিডকালীন পৰিস্থিতিত একমাত্ৰ শিক্ষাৰ আহিলা অনলাইন পাঠদানে ছাত্ৰ-ছাত্ৰী, অভিভাৱক-অভিভাবিকা, শিক্ষক-শিক্ষয়িত্ৰী সকলোকে এই আধুনিক পদ্ধতিসমূহ আয়ত্ব কৰিবলৈ বাধ্য কৰাইছে।
         ওপৰৰ আলোচনাৰ পৰা আমি গম পাওঁ যে বৰ্তমান ক'ভিডকালীন পৰিস্থিতিত অসমৰ শিক্ষা ব্যৱস্থাত ঋণাত্মক দিশসমূহৰ উপৰিও ধনাত্মক দিশসমূহৰ প্ৰভাৱ পৰিলক্ষিত হৈছে। অমাৱস্যাৰ মাজতো যেন সৰি পৰিছে এমুঠি জোনাকৰ বৰষুণ ।

Monday, 10 January 2022

Mental health : Breaking the stigma

Mental health is important for each and every person. Specially among the student community it is extremely necessary. The age of 20-25 where most of the students go to the colleges and Universities is the most crucial years of a student life. As during these years there they have to fight with a lots of insecurities and many kinds of stress and that's also silently. Losing friends, dealing with new people, new places, communication problems, future insecurities, relationship insecurities there are lots of problems to face by a student during this period of time. The mental health of the students is mostly effected during this Covid 19 pandemic period.This unexpected lockdown bring so much of insecurities and unwanted stresses. The sudden change in social and educational life had a negative effect on their mental health. It becomes little easier for the extroverts to deal with these problems because they can easily share all these things with someone but many times they also face some difficulties which they can't share with anyone and that can make a man weak from inside. For the introverts, dealing with all these problems become the toughest thing cause they are not able to share with anyone. I think the main problem of today's students is vibing with someone. In this 21st century world we made lots of friends on Facebook , we have millions of followers in Instagram but in real life we are very alone. We don't even have one good friend with whom we can share everything. We think lots of things before sharing anything like 'what will they think?' , 'should I talk about this?' , 'What if they would judge me after this?' We are living our lives with lots of insecurities and loneliness. Those who have at least one person with whom they can share every little thing of life is the lucky one. Because who doesn't have anyone is fighting with lots of things within themselves . These loneliness can easily lead a good student to a addicted one. So it is very necessary to give importance to the mental well being of the students as well as the educational. There should be counseling services in every institutions so that it became easier for the students to deal with this unseen battles and they can lead themselves to a right path. Smita Bharali 1st sem, Department of communication and journalism.

Raimona National Park: Exploring new wildlife regions in Assam

Raimona National Park of Assam is situated in the Gossaigaon region of the Kokrajhar inside the Bodoland Territorial Region (BTR) across the boundary with Bhutan.The state Chief Minister, Himanta Biswa Sarma declared it as the National Park on 5th June 2021. As a matter of fact, the occasion was a double pride moment as it was proclaimed on World’s Environment Day at Gandhi Mandap, Guwahati. Henceforth, the National Park became official on 9th June 2021 through an Assam Gazette Notification no.FRW.02/2021/27. The complete space of the National Park is 422 sq. km. The Raimona National Park is limited by the Saralbhanga stream on the east, the Pekua waterway on the south and the Sonkosh waterway on the west. However, in the Northern part, the Pekua river dominated the boundary area of the National park. Flora The vicinity is assured of about 380 varieties of plants and exotic orchids that charms the whole place. Mostly, this park flourishes with myriads of orchid species, other tropical rainforest species, and riverine grasslands. Other intriguing fauna includes varieties of bamboo and numerous wetland ecosystems. FAUNA: Raimona National Park boasts of an endemic species called the Golden Langur, which has been named the mascot of the Bodoland region. Other considerable faunas include Royal Bengal Tiger, Asian Elephant, Clouded Leopard, Wild Water Buffalo, and Indian Gaur collectively likely to be found in Raimona National Park. Additionally, the most substantial species include Spotted Deers, Hornbill, above 150 butterfly species, and 170 bird species. To reach Raimona National Park: By Air: Nearest Airport to Raimona National Park is Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi Airport, Guwahati. The approximate distance is 236.6 km. By Train: Nearest Train Station to Raimona National Park is Kokrajhar Railway Station.The distance from Kakrojhar to the National Park is around 53 km. By Road: One can take from Rangpur (177.6 km), Siliguri (239 km), or Guwahati (201.1 km) to reach Raimona National Park. Jidan Kalita Ist Semester

Increasing the minimum age for marriage of women to 21 years

The Central Government is set to introduce a Bill in the Parliament to raise the marriageable age of women to 21 years. This Bill, if passed, will amend the provisions of The Hindu Marriage Act (1955), The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act (2006) and various other related Acts, which prescribe 18 years as the minimum age of marriage for women. This step of Central Government has been hailed by many as a progressive step towards lowering of women mortality rates, improving nutrition levels and ensuring opportunities for women to pursue higher education and professional careers. However, upon closer examination of the various facets of this issue, we get a different picture altogether. Firstly, while there is a greater prevalence of stunting and low weight among children born to adolescent mothers, experts argue that the underlying cause is poverty. Secondly, especially in certain parts of our country, there is always a haunting fear of rape and sexual assault because of which girls are married off early. Further, marrying them off early is also seen by their parents as a solution to deal with poverty and escalating dowry demands, especially among poor and marginalized communities. In this regard, it is worth noting that according to National Family Health Survey-5 (2019-2021), 23.3% of women aged 20-24 years were married before the age of 18, which indicates that the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act (2006) has not been successful in preventing child marriages. Under such circumstance, increasing the legal age of marriage for girls will only expand the number of persons deemed underage and render them without legal protection, which appears to be a bit unfair considering the present socio-economic condition of our country. Moreover, it is also seen nowadays that the new generation of educated women are developing more agency in decisions considering their lives than earlier. There is much more questioning and even resistance to the concept of early marriage among them, and instances of adolescents rebelling against their parents and societal pressures are grappling headlines. This observation is implicitly underscored by the data released in 2019 by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation which states that the mean age of marriage in India has raised to 22.1 years. Therefore, it can be concluded that if more thrust is put towards improving access to education, skill training and employment opportunities for girls, then the objectives intended against this Bill can be achieved even without its passage and implementation. Mihir Kumar Chowdhury Ist Semester

EVOLUTION OF POP MUSIC

Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form during the mid 1950s in the United States and the United Kingdom. The terms popular music and pop music are often used interchangeably, although the former describes all music that is popular and includes many disparate styles. Songs that become hits almost always share certain features that are sometimes called the pop-music formula. They have a good rhythm, a catchy melody, and are easy to remember and sing along to. Pop songs are louder than others even if played on the same volume because their volume is amplified when they are recorded to make them louder. The reason for this is to get the attention of people more easily and quickly as it sounds catchier to the listeners. Pop music may include elements of rock, hip-hop, reggae, dance, R & B, jazz, electronic, and sometimes folk music and various other styles. The broad appeal of pop music is seen to distinguish it from more specific types of popular music, and pop music performances and recordings are among the best- selling and most widely known in many regions of the world. 1950s It began in the age of rock n roll. In the '50s, the music of the previous decades- including swing music and crooning vocals was being replaced. Artists like Johnnie Ray, Frankie Laine, and Guy Mitchell were of this decade. This decade was one of celebration for Elvis Presley, who came around in 1953, and whose songs, like "Hound Dog" were some of the most loved of the time. 1960s Pop music in the 1960s was a time of creativity and innovation and many new styles of popular music developed in the aftermath of rock n roll. Many British pop groups in the 1960s were heavily influenced by American blues and R & B. These included The Beatles and The Rolling Stones. The Beatles helped to reshape Western pop music and were the most successful band ever. Every album was a huge hit from the early material on Please Please Me (1963) to the hugely innovative Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967). Bob Dylan was also a successful solo artist of the decade. 1970s In the 70s there came the subgenre of power pop, a mix of punk rock and pop, defined by bands like The Romantics, and Cheap Trick. Suddenly the hooks and melodies of pop were intertwining with the twang and drawl of country music. This was the beginning of the era of the Jackson 5, Elton John, and Queen. 1980s Digital recording became huge in the 80s, and the possibilities it offered allowed pop music to grow even more. Suddenly, synthesizers and electronic sounds could be put into pop music, and as this kind of dance pop developed, so did genres like techno. The artists who emerged in these years were revolutionary for pop. Micheal Jackson's Thriller is still the best selling album of all time. Jackson was becoming the biggest pop star of the decade, followed closely by Prince, who had his own pop stardom to claim. Female pop powerhouses were also coming into play like Whitney Houston and Madonna. The latter became the most successful female artist of the decade. The '80s was creating a pop music culture like no other decade had before it, a culture that would carry through in the decades to come. 1990s While the '90s saw pop continuing much as it had been in the past, what it introduced to the genre was girl groups. The decade saw the British girl group, The Spice Girls, emerge into the American market and become the most commercially successful British group in North America since the Beatles. The next ten years saw teen pop groups and singers pop up all over the charts, including the Backstreet Boys and Britney Spears. 2000s By the 2000s, pop was a genre with endless roads for artists to travel down, each with its own flair and twist to the classic traditions of pop music. Teen pop continued to be an extremely popular genre in the early 2000s with the success of teenage pop singers Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera. Boy Bands maintained their popularity during the beginning of the decade but their popularity also faded, with the exception of Backstreet Boys, who continued their popularity post-2005. Other artists which emerged during this decade were Justin Timberlake, Kylie Minogue, Shakira, Jennifer Lopez, Lady Gaga, Jonas Brothers, Rihanna, Miley Cyrus, Demi Lovato and many more. 2010s- 2020s Teen pop had made a significant comeback throughout the decade, with the likes of Demi Lovato, Selena Gomez, Justin Bieber, Taylor Swift and Ariana Grande. Like their predecessors, Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, and Justin Timberlake, who rose to fame in the late 90s and early 2000s, most of these stars were exclusively associated with Disney Channel and Nickelodeon at the genesis of careers. Since 2011, boy bands and girl groups have returned to mainstream popularity for the first time after the early 2000s, with the most popular examples being British-Irish boy band One Direction and American boy band Big Time Rush. A new generation of successful girl groups was ushered in by acts such as Little Mix and Fifth Harmony. In addition to this, K-Pop groups, benefitting from high visibility on Social Media and Video sharing sites like YouTube, began to capitalize on their viral power and monetize netizen fan bases overseas conducting sell out tours in western markets during the mid-2010s. Korean acts such as BIGBANG, EXO, and BTS sold out US tours with little to no promotion or support from mainstream media sources like TV & Radio Airplay. In Latin America, Latin pop had remained the main subgenre. Tropical, reggaeton, moombahton, soca have also been popular genres while pop rock continues to be successful. In December 2016, Billboard magazine named Enrique Iglesias the 14th most successful and top male dance club artist of all time. "Despacito" by Luis Fonsi and Daddy Yankee becomes the highest-certified song of all-time in the United States after receiving a 13× platinum certification by the Recording Industry Association of America for units of over 13 million sales plus track-equivalent streams. Artists like Ed Sheeran, Adele, Ellie Goulding, Sam Smith, Jessie J, and Emeli Sandé from the U.K. started to become highly successful and gained popularity from crossover hits in the U.S.. Ed Sheeran's "Shape of You" , "Perfect" and Adele's "Rolling in the Deep", "Someone Like You", and "Set Fire to the Rain" all reached the No.1 spot of the Billboard Hot 100 in this decade. Prerona Baruah Ist Semester

History and Evolution of Indian National Flag

Mahatma Gandhi had once stressed why India should have its own flag and had said, “A flag is a necessity for all nations. Millions have died for it. It is no doubt a kind of idolatry which would be a sin to destroy. It will be necessary for us Indian Muslims, Christian Jews, Parsis and all others to whom India is their home to recognize a common flag to live and to die for." It is really amazing to see the various changes that our National Flag went through since its first inception. It was discovered or recognized during our national struggle for freedom. The evolution of the Indian National Flag sailed through many vicissitudes to arrive at what it is today. In one way it reflects the political developments in the nation. Some of the historical milestones in the evolution of our National Flag involve the following- The idea of a single Indian flag was first raised by the British rulers of India after the rebellion of 1857, which resulted in the establishment of direct imperial rule. The first flag, whose design was based on western heraldic standards, were similar to the flags of other British colonies, including Canada and South Africa; its red field included the Union Jack in the upper-left quadrant and a Star of India capped by the royal crown in the middle of the right half. The partition of Bengal (1905) resulted in the introduction of a new flag representing the Indian independence movement that sought to unite the multitude of castes and races within the country. The Vande Mataram flag, part of the nationalist Swadeshi movement, comprised Indian religious symbols represented in western heraldic fashion. The tricolour flag included eight white lotuses on the upper green band representing the eight provinces, a sun and a crescent on the bottom red band, and the Vande Mataram slogan in Hindi on the central yellow band. The flag had been hoisted on August 7, 1906 in Parsee Bagan Square (Green Park) in Calcutta and the launch was only briefly covered by newspapers. The flag was not covered in contemporary governmental or political reports either, but was used at the annual session of the Indian National Congress. Despite the multiple uses of the flag, it failed to generate enthusiasm amongst Indian nationalists. Around the same time, another proposal for the flag was initiated by Sister Nivedita, a Hindu reformist and disciple of Swami Vivekananda. The flag consisted of a thunderbolt in the centre and a hundred and eight oil lamps for the border, with the Vande Mataram caption split around the thunderbolt. It was also presented at the Indian National Congress meeting in 1906. Soon, many other proposals were initiated, but none of them gained attention from the nationalist movement. A slightly modified version of The Vande Mataram flag was subsequently used by Madam Bhikaji Cama at the second International Socialist Congress in Stuttgart, Paris in 1907. This flag was very similar to the Vande Mataram flag except that the top strip had only one lotus but the seven stars denoting the Saptarishi and has Green strip on bottom instead of Red. This flag was also exhibited at a socialist conference in Berlin. Partha Pratim Haloi Ist Sem

A Desi Superhero "MINNAL MURALI"

While we mostly look at the west to quench our superhero appetite I mean the box office success of Spiderman is a testament to it. We are still taking baby steps to establish our language industries in the same genre. With a project like "Minnal Murali", we can project this superhero as our very own. The film directed by Bazel Joseph focuses on Jason(Tovino Thomas), a tailor who has aspirations to start a new life in America. The village folk considers him to be a nobody but he doesn't pay much attention to the constant chatter. Set in the 90's fate has it that Jason gets struck by lightning only to possess superpowers and understand his purpose in life is much more profound than the believed constant back and forth and tussle he has with the local police exploring Jason's roots and having to deal with an evil force, someone he has an odd parallel connection with and something that the villagers and Jason never envisioned to tackle forms the basic storyline of "Minnal Murali". The film's tone is perfectly balanced between funny and serious. While the VFX is not the strongest aspect of this movie, its character-building and development are outstanding. Both the hero as well as the villain are written brilliantly. The villain isn't a one-dimensional antagonist embodying all that is evil, but instead someone you can empathize with- this adds an interesting moral dilemma: is it okay to do bad things for a good reason? Tovino is believable as the ex-tailor turned superhero: with enough charisma and calmness to lead the film into its final fight sequence. Some might notice influence from popular superhero movies a few times here and there, but this is Minnal Murali, an Indian superhero story, and the Indian feel never fades away. Many superhero stories often lose their identities in wanting to mimic what the west has done with its characters and Minnal stays rooted in his origin story making it unique and original and something that all of us Indians can be proud of. Sourav Jyoti Kalita 1st Semester, Department of Communication and Journalism

Sunday, 9 January 2022

Climate inclusive CHOICES

Today the world consists of 7.6 billion humans (approx), who make trillions of decisions every day. These decisions not only determine the present and future of an individual but also about the earth in totality. In the 21st century, it is of utmost importance that we recognize the importance of our decisions and make them with a 360-degree perspective. When the eyeballs of the intellectual fraternity shift towards Conference of Parties in Glasgow, UK, We as a generation need to internalize that we need to walk the talk regarding climate change as the planet earth is alarming us with extreme weather conditions. According to FICCI average per capita consumption of plastic in India is about 11kgs in the year 2014-15. And it is estimated by the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural gas that the annual per capita consumption in India would be 20 kgs by 2022. Now, let us have a look at how our small changes in the decision will change the choices that we make, and that can lead to a lasting impact on the climate. The packed dring water that we usually buy is the single used plastics and we tend to buy it without even realizing how much plastic we are consuming. Now if we could carry a metal bottle then that would not only improve the plastic consumption but also the health conditions of an individual. This is just an example that I tried to throw light on. There are zillions of such choices that we could make towards a more sustainable world to live in. I could have given a few more suggestions and examples but what would be more effective is to educate yourself with the help of the search engine that is available to us. Let’s put this much effort to build a climate inclusive lifestyle. I also acknowledge the fact that issues such as climate change need a multi-stakeholder approach, therefore we also must complete our duty by putting pressure on the government and private stakeholders to opt for climate-inclusive ways of production and governance. It might seed laborious but trust me it is as simple as just sending a mail. Start with asking your local member of parliament regarding the district or state climate action policies. That might create the change that you want to see. LET’S NOT FORGET, IF THE PLANET SUSTAINS THEN ONLY EVERYTHING ELSE WILL FOLLOW. Tusa Ranjan Bora MCJ 1st Sem

LAND OF KINGS

Rajasthan which is also known as the "Land of kings" is very rich in culture. It's tradition, heritage and mountains attracts a lot of tourists every year. In the year back of kings, this beautiful land was known as Rajputana. Over the years it has been ruled by various kings including the Rajput, Maratha and even Muslims rulers, which have resulted in the diverse culture of Rajasthan. 'Attithi Devo Bhavo' is a principle of the Rajasthan culture. It means to treat your guests like God. The hospitality of the people of Rajasthan is famous all over the world which makes tourists to visit the place again. Apart from this, there is a popular folk song 'Padharo Mhare Desh' which means 'Welcome to my Country'. Each region of Rajasthan has its own folk culture. Marganiyars and Langas are two prominent group that contributed to the Rajasthan folk music. During pre monsoon period, 'ragas' are performed to call forth the rains. Banjaras, Miranis, Jogis and many other are famous groups there. Some of the traditional instruments are sarangi, kamayach, dhols, shehnai and been-folks are usually used for certain purposes to tell a story of bravery or love. They are usually in the form of ballads. Ghoomer dance, which originated in Udaipur has gained international recognition. If you are a lover of architecture, then Rajasthan is an ideal place for you. There are some amazing sites of Islamic, Hindu, Colonial and even modern architecture. Jaisalmer Fort and Golden Fort were built by Rawal Jaisal, a rajput ruler in 1156 AD. The fort contains several gates, Jain temples and Havelis and in included as a world heritage site by UNESCO. Apart from this, the Umaid Bhavan palace in jodhpur, the Jain temple in Ranakpur and several other sites such as memorials, forts, heritage hotels are attraction to many tourists and visitors. The pink city of Jaipur has been named the UNESCO world heritage site in 2019. Handicrafts are another important part of Rajasthan culture. Any leather item is usually camel leather. Carpets are made from hand knitting techniques. There are many miniature items made of red sand. Pagri is something one can bring back as a memory from Rajasthan. The food of Rajasthan is widely known across the worlds for its various spices and sweetness. Daalbati, Kachori, Ghewar, Gheriya are some of the local food items that one must try while in Rajasthan. Camels are commonly found animals in Rajasthan. They are desert animals. Camel rides are another popular attraction for tourists. Camel fairs take place every year in Bikaner, Pushkar and other regions. This festival is dedicated to the ship of the desert and their owners. Rajashthan is a vast state but living in its rural areas will give you a through insight of the Rajasthan folk and their culture. The state has been blessed with such historical and beautiful forts and other monuments. One must Rajasthan to explore the land of Maharajas. Achin Das, Roll no: 19 1st semester, Department of communication and journalism, Gauhati University.

Art of Travel : Majuli – A Place of Peace.

Domestic tourism has become the buzzword after the world has been hardhit by the pandemic. On such majorly frequented destination in Assam has been Majuli. The Island is home to tribal communities including the Misings, the Deoris and the Sonowal Kacharis. It has also been called ‘the cultural capital and the cradle of Assamese civilization’ for the past 500 years. Majuli is also an art and cultural hotspot of Assamese Vaishnavite culture – one of the major traditions of Hinduism. Majuli is fast disappearing because of heavy floods and soil erosion which has reduced the island to one third its original size. It is situated in Northeast India and Best time to visit between October and March. There are so many "satras" in Majuli. Majuli Island Story : It is believed that the island was originally one narrow piece of land between Brahmaputra and Burhidihing rivers. It was also the capital of the Kingdom Chutia. Frequent earthquakes in the 17th century and floods in the 18th century modelled the island into its present form. Majuli is said to be a leading centre of Vaishnavism since ages. neo-Vaishnavite movement. Jorhat is the closest town to Majuli Island in Assam. There is no direct route from Guwahati to Majuli by ship. Jorhat is about 14 kilometres from Nimati Ghat, the ferry point from where we can travel by boat to the Majuli island. A ferry ride from Nimati Ghat is approximately an hour long and most early morning rides tend to be crowded. However, the picturesque sights around the river Brahmaputra and faint lines of white sandy beaches blur out the noise and chaos during the ferry ride. There are several options for accommodation in Majuli. We can stay in one of the ‘Satras’ or monasteries on the island. Other than that there are many guest houses and bamboo cottages in Majuli. Uttar Kamalabari Satra The Uttar Kamalabari Satra, a favourite among many travellers, houses its guests in traditional bamboo huts. The Samoguri Satra has been employing traditions of mask-making from the mid-17th century. The mask-making workshop has vibrant masks of animals and humans dotting the walls of the room. Spend a Day Getting to Know the Local Culture and Lifestyle. The locals in Majuli have a rich and vibrant lifestyle. Spend a day at one of the Missing villages or visit an agricultural farm. Witness the Festivals in Majuli When planning trip to Majuli, try to coincide travel dates with the famous Raas Leela festival that takes place in the third week of November. The much-awaited festival of the island is a celebration of music, theatre and dance. For this festival, thousands of devotees visit the Satra. Another popular festival is Ali aye ligang. It is celebrated during mid-February for 5 days. During the festival, local food and beveraes ar prepared and served. Majuli is unique in ways more than one. So when I got home from my trip to the island, there wasn’t just one memory that lingered in my mind. The majestic Brahmaputra that encapsulates the island, the island’s sandy white beaches, bright blue skies and beaming faces of the children from the island. To me, Majuli is an embodiment of solitude and peace. Even years later, a piece of Majuli still remains with me. Angshuman Goswami Roll no. 25 1st Semester Department of Communication and Journalism; Gauhati University

জয়পুৰ ভ্ৰমণ

  জাহ্নৱী ভূঞা ; যোগাযোগ আৰু সাংবাদিকতা বিভাগ, গুৱাহাটী বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়।  ভ্ৰমণ শব্দটো প্ৰতিজন মানুহৰ বাবে এটা শিহৰণ।জীৱন জীয়াবলৈ মানুহক কিছ...